This question has puzzled me so much: Why does the Bible call God, who is the only God, the Father? What does this name mean? Is it talking about physical paternity? Does this contradict the unity of the Almighty God? Let’s let the Bible answer this question.
First: the word Father means the Origin or Source.
“Has the rain a father? Or who has begotten the drops of dew? From whose womb comes the ice? And the frost of heaven, who gives it birth?” (The Torah, Job 38: 28-29). Here we see that the meaning of the word father is the source or origin of rain. It does not speak here of a physical paternity.
Second: the word Father means the Creator.
“But now, O Lord, You are our Father; we are the clay, and You our potter; and all we are the work of Your hand” (The Torah, Isaiah 64: 8). Here we see the word father is associated with a potter—a creator—and we are the work of His hand. Here, too, we do not see the word father talking about a physical relationship.
Third: the word Father means Defender or Sponsor
“A father of the fatherless, a defender of widows, is God in His holy habitation. God sets the solitary in families; He brings out those who are bound into prosperity; But the rebellious dwell in a dry land” (Zabour, Psalm 68: 5-6). Here we see the meaning of the word father as defender and advocate of orphans and widows. Again, there is no physical family connection.
Fourth: the Father is one who deserves Obedience and Honor
“A son honors his father, and a servant his master. If then I am the Father, Where is My honor? And if I am a Master, Where is My reverence? Says the Lord of hosts…” )The Torah, Malachi 1: 6(. God, as our father, is asking for my obedience and honor, respecting Him more than human leaders, laws and traditions. Again there is no indication of physical birth relationship.
Fifth: the word Father creates a sense of Equality
“Have we not all one Father? Has not one God created us? Why do we deal treacherously with one another by profaning the covenant of the fathers?” (The Torah, Malachi 2:10). Here, the author points out that, under God the Father, humans are equal. All are created by one Creator, there is no difference between any of His creatures. The Bible also affirms: “Doubtless You are our Father, though Abraham was ignorant of us, and Israel does not acknowledge us. You, O Lord, are our Father; Our Redeemer from Everlasting is Your name” (The Torah, Isaiah 63:16). Human equality does not depend on physical or ethnic procreation, but on our relationship with God. There is no sign of physical birth here, either.
The Bible, in everything it says about the paternity of God to man, does not speak about a human blood relationship. Rather, it affirms that God is the source of life—the Creator, the Fashioner, and the Giver of life who defends and protects, who is entitled to obedience more than human beings, and who created us equal with no difference between us. What a beautiful picture of this fatherly, loving God who calls His perfect creation to worship Him.